Are natural language specifications useful?
In my efforts to create a formal specification of the Arm architecture, I have focussed on the parts written in “pseudocode”. I have reverse engineered the ASL language hiding inside the pseudocode to create a formal, executable specification that I can execute and test. In the process, I have tended to ignore all the natural language prose that makes up the bulk of the 6,000 page Arm Architecture Reference Manual. In defiance of Betteridge’s Law, this article is going to explain how I finally found a use for all that prose.
(This post is based on some of the ideas in my forthcoming OOPSLA 2017 paper “Who guards the guards? Formal Validation of the Arm v8-M Architecture Specification”.)
A thought experiment
Suppose that last year I did a really careful audit of the architecture specification and checked that every privileged register had an appropriate check preventing access from unprivileged code. I find a couple of minor problems in the architecture specification and fix them; I worry that these problems had not been caught by the tests we run on processors (and also on the architecture spec) so I get the test team to write extra tests; and I worry that the formal verification team had also missed these problems so I work with them to update the formal testbench. With that all taken care of, I congratulate myself on making the specification that little bit better and for taking the extra care required to get the fixes into the verification frameworks. I celebrate with a tall glass of ginger ale.
Now, this year, I have a new task: adding a really cool set of instructions that greatly increases performance. With all my focus on achieving performance improvements, I don’t notice that one of the new instructions can read one of those privileged registers, even if the processor is in unprivileged mode.
Since I went that extra mile last year to get the tests improved, I might hope that those tests would catch this mistake. Alas, the test suite only checks the instructions that existed last year, not the new instructions I just added so those tests and even the improved formal testbench cannot catch my mistake.
This limitation of our testing methods to only checking backwards compatibility is the kind of thing that keeps me up at night. I started wondering whether there was anything I could do to prevent it from happening?
Specifying architectural intent
The problem is that the ASL specification that I work with is not good at specifying “architectural intent.” The architect’s intention was that a privileged register “R” could not be accessed in unprivileged mode but the way that the specification ensures this property is by adding a suitable check in every place that accesses that register. If someone else were to examine the specification closely, they could see that the checks are always performed before accesses to “R” and might guess that “R” is meant to be privileged. But that intention is not part of the ASL specification that I write so there is no way to see when I break it.
While pondering this problem, I realized that the natural language part of the Arm architecture specification held part of the answer to the problem. Some parts of the natural language specification simply replicate information written in ASL and is therefore not very useful but some parts of the natural language specification describe overall properties of the specification such as invariants. So all I have to do is sift through the specification looking for these statements of architectural intent.
For my first attempt at this, I decided to bypass the 6,000 page v8-A specification, and focus on the 1,200 page v8-M specification. Even that felt like too much so I decided to focus on the 50 pages that describe the v8-M exception/interrupt and security mechanisms: a much more feasible task.
What I found was that the v8-M architecture specification had been written in a more structured way than the v8-A spec. It consists of a series of short labelled statements such as:
JRJC: Exit from lockup is by any of the following: - A Cold reset. - A Warm reset. - Entry to Debug state. - Preemption by a higher priority exception.
Without trying to explain what the terminology in that rule means, you can hopefully see that this is not too bad as a specification. It is clear what it means. It is falsifiable. And, crucially, it is stating something about the specification as a whole (there is no other way to exit lockup) so it is capturing some of the architectural intent that is missing from the ASL.
The only problem is that even though they use a much more structured style of English, I still don’t have a formal semantics for rules written in this style. So I started playing around with some syntax that I could parse and assign a meaning to. What I came up with is this:
rule JRJC assume Fell(LockedUp); Called(TakeColdReset) || Called(TakeReset) || Rose(Halted) || Called(ExceptionEntry);
What this says is that if, at any step, we assume that the “LockedUp” variable fell (from TRUE to FALSE) then one of the following must be true:
- the specification must have called the function “TakeColdReset”;
- the specification must have called the function “TakeReset”;
- the “Halted” variable (that indicates that we are in Debug state) must rise (from FALSE to TRUE); or
- an exception must be taken.
The formalisation has the same structure and similar terminology to the English prose so, if you have a bit of an understanding of the terminology of the architecture and the structure of the specification, you can put them side by side with each other and see that they are basically saying the same thing. (Some people would describe them as being “eyeball close”.)
Encouraged by this example, I started mining the specification for more rules that I could formalize. More typical was my experience with this rule:
rule VGNW: Entry to lockup from an exception causes: * Any Fault Status Registers associated with the exception to be updated. * No update to the exception state, pending or active. * The PC to be set to 0xEFFFFFFE. * EPSR.IT to be become UNKNOWN. In addition, HFSR.FORCED is not set to 1.
The first three bullets are easy enough to formalize. The fourth bullet is tricky because it basically says that “EPSR.IT” can be assigned any value; this is not a falsifiable statement because one possibility is that EPSR.IT is unchanged. The final line was a bit of a puzzle since I could think of two incompatible interpretations — I decided to try them both.
rule VGNW assume Rose(LockedUp); property a HaveMainExt() ==> CFSR != 0; property b1 Stable(ExnPending); property b2 Stable(ExnActive); property c PC == 0xEFFF_FFFE; property e1 HFSR.FORCED == '0'; property e2 Stable(HFSR.FORCED);
When I checked which of these were actually true, only properties (a) and (e2) passed the test.
- Properties (b1) and (b2) had been true about the v7-M specification but, for the v8-M specification, Arm had decided that the exception state should be updated.
- Property (c) was almost right, except that the English rule was implicitly referring to the debug view of the program counter, not the normal view. (The normal view is always 4 greater than the debug view.)
- Properties (e1) and (e2) were guesses about what the last line of the English meant. By trying both, I had now figured out that the statement “HFSR.FORCED is not set to 1” meant that HFSR.FORCED was unchanged.
Hmmmm, so this was not as easy as the first example suggested; it was going to take a bit more work than I had hoped to formalize the rules so I used a classic research technique that I learned when I worked at the University of Utah:
Retroactively redefine your goal and declare success!
So, massive success, I now have a very effective way of finding errors and ambiguities in the English rules in Arm’s specifications!
And, as a bonus, I found that some of the rules could catch bugs in the specification — I have found about a dozen bugs so far.
Are natural language specifications useful?
So how do I feel about natural language specifications now?
The natural language part of Arm’s architecture specifications adds some of the architectural intent that is missing from the more executable style of specification that I have focussed my efforts on until now.
The additional structure of Arm’s new rule-based specification style makes it easier to understand and formalize the rules.
The natural language specification is able to express concepts that are harder to express in a formal language. A small example is the statement “EPSR.IT to be become UNKNOWN” that I could not translate but that is useful information to programmers. A larger example would be something like memory concurrency semantics that we are only now learning how to formalize.
The inherent ambiguity of natural language remains a problem — it is only by trying to formalize rule VGNW above that it became clear how ambiguous some of the statements were.
The untestability of natural language remains a problem — it is only when I formalized rule VGNW and tried to prove that it held that I found that properties (b1) and (b2) are not true.
So natural language specs are playing a useful role but all the traditional objections to natural language specifications still remain. I see two ways past this.
Since Arm is adopting a more structured approach to writing these natural language statements, I wonder if it is possible to have our cake and eat it too? Could we write at least part of our specifications in a formal language and then automatically translate it to English. It sounds fanciful but I recently came across an intriguing paper by Burke and Johannisson that showed that it is possible to do a reasonable job in some cases.
We could write two versions of every rule: one in natural language and one in a formal language. This has the advantage that it could be applied today but the disadvantage that it would take more work in the long run and there would inevitably be differences between the two.
This would still leave some statements that we cannot formalize yet or whose formalization is so tricky that a direct translation between English and math is not viable. We still need those: hopefully someday we will find a way to formalize them.
So, are natural language specifications useful? Yes, but they would be even more useful if they were a bit more formal.
Related posts and papers
- Paper: End-to-End Verification of ARM Processors with ISA-Formal, CAV 2016.
- Verifying against the official ARM specification
- Finding Bugs versus Proving Absence of Bugs
- Limitations of ISA-Formal
- Paper: Trustworthy Specifications of ARM v8-A and v8-M System Level Architecture, FMCAD 2016.
- ARM’s ASL Specification Language
- ARM Releases Machine Readable Architecture Specification
- Dissecting the ARM Machine Readable Architecture files
- Code: MRA Tools
- ASL Lexical Syntax
- Arm v8.3 Machine Readable Specifications
- Paper: Who guards the guards? Formal Validation of the Arm v8-M Architecture Specification), OOPSLA 2017.
- This post: Are Natural Language Specifications Useful?
- Formal validation of the Arm v8-M specification