Using KLEE on Rust-for-Linux (part 2)

Linux logo Using tools like the KLEE symbolic execution tool or bounded model checkers with Linux kernel code is still a bit of a black art. The first part of this series on using KLEE on the Rust for Linux considered what we would want to check. This second part, digs deeply into how to prepare the codebase for use with LLVM-based tools like KLEE. (Warning: it may contain far more detail than most people are interested in.) The final part will show how we can build simple verification frameworks. The code changes described in this post are in this branch of my fork of Rust for Linux.

The basic steps involved in this are

  1. Use WLLVM to build the rLinux1 code (i.e., C code) while emitting LLVM bitcode files.

  2. Modify the Makefile to get rustc to emit LLVM bitcode files.

  3. Write ‘stub functions’ that represent the rLinux functions called by the Rust for Linux infrastructure.

  4. Link the right bitcode files together.

  5. Test whether it works by using KLEE to concretely execute the code.

Note that, in this part, we will ignore the idea of verifying something: we will just focus on building something we can give to KLEE. In the third part we will then use KLEE to symbolically execute the code.

A quick heads up before we get started: there are a lot of steps here, a few of them are a bit slow. Hopefully though, you can just cut-and-paste sequences of commands into your shell in the background while you do something more interesting. You may also want to extend the Makefile in the Linux kernel to make it easier to repeat some of the steps.

Also, a reminder from the first part that the following does not work with the latest version of Rust for Linux. The Rust compiler moves very fast and this causes problems for verification tools. In particular, what I describe is based on KLEE that recently added support for LLVM-11 but the latest Rust compiler and Rust for Linux relies on LLVM-12. All the detailed instructions are therefore for an older version of Rust for Linux from late May instead of the current version.2

Installing tools

The first step is installing some tools needed to build Rust for Linux and the WLLVM tool.

rustup component add rust-src
rustup override set nightly-2021-02-20
rustup component add rustfmt clippy
cargo install --locked --version 0.56.0 bindgen

sudo apt-get -y install \
    git fakeroot build-essential ncurses-dev xz-utils \
    libssl-dev bc flex libelf-dev bison \
    clang-11 file

pip3 install --upgrade wllvm

And also building the RVT docker image that we will need later.3

# install docker
sudo apt-get install -y docker
sudo groupadd docker
sudo usermod -aG docker $USER
# you may have to log out and back in to make the last command take effect

# install RVT and build a docker image
git clone rvt
cd rvt
env LLVM11=yes docker/build

# set an environment variable to point to the Rust verification tools directory
export RVT_DIR=`pwd`

Using WLLVM to build the rLinux code

The first step is generating LLVM bitcode files using WLLVM. This will be very similar to the way Linux is normally built except that we need to build LLVM bitcode files instead of x86 ELF files.

We are going to build bitcode for rLinux using WLLVM in some approximation of the instructions in these posts: and

There is one important wrinkle (i.e., hack). To build the Linux kernel, we need to use clang-11. But, to build using WLLVM, we need to use a program called “clang” and there is no direct way to say “use clang-11 instead”. Fortunately, there is a standard hack for this situation: we create a symlink from clang to clang-11 and ensure that the symlink is on our path. We could put the symlink in ~/local/bin but then we are bound to forget that it is there and, three months from now, it will break something in a very confusing way. Instead, it is better to put it in some temporary directory and add it to our PATH in the interactive command line.4

mkdir foobin
ln -s /usr/bin/clang-11 foobin/clang
export PATH=$PWD/foobin:$PATH
export LLVM_COMPILER=clang

Now, we clone Rust for Linux (including the entire Linux kernel), tweak the Makefile and build it.

Note that we are cloning a fork that includes all the changes described below instead of the Rust for Linux repo. If you prefer, you can fork the original repo and make the changes yourself.

# git clone
git clone --branch klee
cd linux

To make rustc generate LLVM bitcode files for Rust code, we make the following change to Makefile.

+++ b/Makefile
@@ -806,6 +806,10 @@ else ifdef CONFIG_RUST_OPT_LEVEL_Z
 KBUILD_RUSTCFLAGS += -Copt-level=z

+KBUILD_RUSTCFLAGS += --emit=llvm-bc
 # Tell gcc to never replace conditional load with a non-conditional one
 KBUILD_CFLAGS  += $(call cc-option,--param=allow-store-data-races=0)

Now we can configure the Linux kernel by turning on all of the Rust for Linux options.

make menuconfig
# Enable General setup:Rust support (last entry in General setup menu)
# Enable Kernel hacking:Sample kernel code:Rust samples and enable all the example code
# Enable Device drivers:Android:Android drivers:* (scroll down a long way to find Android!
# Enable all drivers (not sure what we want so just build all of them)

Finally, we can build the kernel using WLLVM5

make KCFLAG='-O0' CC=wllvm -j16 -k
make KCFLAG='-O0' CC=wllvm -j16 -k modules

These commands will fail with a lot of linker warnings about duplicate symbols because the git repo will contain ‘stubs’ that are used to replace bits of the rLinux code. For our current purposes, this is ok but, of course, we should really fix the Makefile to only link the stubs when compiling for verification. (We use the ‘-k’ flag to force make to keep going after the linking failure.)

Using WLLVM to build the kernel results in the normal ELF .o files plus some LLVM bitcode files that we need for use with KLEE. WLLVM creates three files for every .c file: .o, .bc and .cmd. The .cmd file is the command or a makefile (or something like that). For example, the files created for the sample device driver rust_chrdev are

$ ls -al samples/rust/rust_chrdev* samples/rust/.rust_chrdev*
-rw-r--r-- 1 adreid adreid   191 Aug 12 15:17 samples/rust/.rust_chrdev.ko.cmd
-rw-r--r-- 1 adreid adreid   112 Aug 12 12:19 samples/rust/.rust_chrdev.mod.cmd
-rw-r--r-- 1 adreid adreid  6616 Aug 12 15:17 samples/rust/.rust_chrdev.mod.o.bc
-rw-r--r-- 1 adreid adreid 30082 Aug 12 15:17 samples/rust/.rust_chrdev.mod.o.cmd
-rw-r--r-- 1 adreid adreid  3305 Aug 12 12:18 samples/rust/.rust_chrdev.o.cmd
-rw-r--r-- 1 adreid adreid 36020 Aug 12 12:18 samples/rust/rust_chrdev.bc
-rw-r--r-- 1 adreid adreid 10160 Aug 12 15:17 samples/rust/rust_chrdev.ko
-rw-r--r-- 1 adreid adreid    28 Aug 12 12:19 samples/rust/rust_chrdev.mod
-rw-r--r-- 1 adreid adreid   561 Aug 12 15:17 samples/rust/rust_chrdev.mod.c
-rw-r--r-- 1 adreid adreid  2904 Aug 12 15:17 samples/rust/rust_chrdev.mod.o
-rw-r--r-- 1 adreid adreid  7888 Aug 12 12:18 samples/rust/rust_chrdev.o
-rw-r----- 1 adreid adreid  2193 Aug  9 11:23 samples/rust/

The .mod.c file is a machine generated file created for every kernel module. The rust_chrdev.bc file is the bitcode corresponding to rust_chrdev.ko.

[If you are wondering why we built the entire rLinux kernel as bitcode even though we decided above that we were not going to try to verify the rLinux code, the reason is that we need a few of the bitcode files and it is easier to build the whole thing than to try to just build the parts that we need. (There is lots of room to optimize this process!)]

Using KLEE with the Linux bitcode files

KLEE is a symbolic execution tool that runs LLVM bitcode files using symbolic inputs. But, before we start writing verification harnesses that generate symbolic inputs, we can test whether the bitcode files we have generated kinda work with KLEE. We need a version of KLEE that supports LLVM-11 so we will run all future KLEE commands in the docker image that we built earlier.6

From now on we will run all KLEE-related commands in an interactive docker session in a separate terminal window


Undefined references

The following command (that is run in the Docker session) attempts to concretely execute the kernel initialization code of one of the Rust device drivers in KLEE. Even this minimalist and not very interesting test will fail: our immediate goal is not to get KLEE to run something interesting but to get KLEE to run anything and we will use the error/warning messages to figure out what we need to fix.

klee --entry-point=init_module samples/rust/rust_chrdev.bc

This prints a bunch of warnings of which the most obvious are warnings about undefined references. These come in two forms: references to Rust code (these have really long, mangled names); and references to C code (these have short, comprehensible names).

KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to function: _RNvMNtCsbDqzXfLQacH_6kernel4fileNtB2_4File14make_fake_file
KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to function: _RNvMNtCsbDqzXfLQacH_6kernel4fileNtB2_4File8from_ptr
KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to function: _RNvXs_NtCsbDqzXfLQacH_6kernel6chrdevNtB4_4CdevNtNtNtCsbDqzXfLQacH_4core3ops4drop4Drop4drop
KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to function: __rust_alloc
KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to function: __rust_dealloc
KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to variable: __this_module
KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to function: alloc_chrdev_region
KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to function: unregister_chrdev_region

The problem is that, although our change to the Makefile compiles all the Rust code to bitcode, it does not link the bitcode files together. We will start by linking in the missing Rust code. Through a bit of analysis and a bit of experiment, I found that the following files were sufficient to resolve the references to Rust symbols.

llvm-link-11 rust/alloc.bc rust/kernel.bc rust/core.bc samples/rust/.rust_chrdev.mod.o.bc samples/rust/rust_chrdev.bc -o t.bc
$RVT_DIR/docker/run klee --entry-point=init_module t.bc

Rebuilding KLEE’s runtime system

The linking step fixes the undefined references but now we have an error

error: linking module flags 'wchar_size': IDs have conflicting values in 'memcmp64_Debug+Asserts.bc' and 't.bc'

This refers to the file memcpy64_Debug+Asserts.bc that is an essential part of KLEE’s runtime system. The problem here is that when we built KLEE, this file was built as if we were compiling usermode programs but we’re dealing with the Linux kernel here and it is built with different compiler flags. Grepping the Makefile finds the flag we need to use: -fshort-wchar.

$ grep wchar Makefile
    fno-strict-aliasing -fno-common -fshort-wchar -fno-PIE \

The fix is to add this flag to the KLEE runtime build system and rebuild. We will do this in the interactive Docker session but beware that if you quit and restart the session, then the changes will be lost – so don’t quit and restart.

$ pushd ~/klee

# Apply the following change to runtime/CMakeLists.txt

diff --git a/runtime/CMakeLists.txt b/runtime/CMakeLists.txt
index 6ee6f830..ea97366e 100644
--- a/runtime/CMakeLists.txt
+++ b/runtime/CMakeLists.txt
@@ -50,6 +50,8 @@ foreach (bc_architecture ${bc_architectures})
                     "Optimization (\"${bc_optimization}\") for runtime library unknown.")
         endif ()

+        list(APPEND local_flags -target x86_64-unknown-unknown-elf -fshort-wchar)
         # Define suffix-specific optimizations
         set("LIB_BC_FLAGS_${bc_architecture}_${bc_optimization}" ${local_flags})
     endforeach ()

$ cd build
$ make -j16
$ sudo make install
$ popd

With that change, KLEE is able to concretely run the kernel module initializer although it produces a lot of warnings about undefined C functions

KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to function: __init_waitqueue_head
KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to function: __platform_driver_register
KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to function: __wake_up
KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to function: add_device_randomness
KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to function: alloc_chrdev_region
KLEE: WARNING ONCE: calling external: alloc_chrdev_region(94909129121336, 0, 2, 94909128291856) at [no debug info]
KLEE: ERROR: (location information missing) failed external call: alloc_chrdev_region
KLEE: done: total instructions = 1191
KLEE: done: completed paths = 1
KLEE: done: generated tests = 1

We are making progress but the error (and all the warnings) indicates that it is time to create a mock Linux layer.

Create a mock Linux layer

All of the C functions that are called from Rust code are accessed via the file rust/ a file generated by binder. For each of the C functions called by Rust, we need to create an implementation. These implementations do not need to be complete (after all, we could just use the real rLinux implementation) but they need to be sufficient to let us run tests and detect bugs. Since we are at an early stage of testing, this bar is quite low: the code only has to be type-correct and memory-safe. In most cases, this can be a function with either an empty body or it will return 0 or a value like core::ptr::null_mut(). Of course, these will need to be improved as we get more serious but, for now, we just want something to run without spurious errors.

For example here is the stub for cdev_add.

unsafe extern "C" fn cdev_add(_arg1: *mut cdev, _arg2: dev_t, _arg3: c_types::c_uint) -> c_types::c_int {

Some of the other mock functions that we create are the following. The code for these can be found at rust/ in the klee branch.

unsafe extern "C" fn cdev_init(_arg1: *mut cdev, _arg2: *const file_operations);
unsafe extern "C" fn cdev_add(_arg1: *mut cdev, _arg2: dev_t, _arg3: c_types::c_uint) -> c_types::c_int;
unsafe extern "C" fn cdev_del(_arg1: *mut cdev);
unsafe extern "C" fn __init_waitqueue_head(...);
unsafe extern "C" fn __wake_up(...);
unsafe extern "C" fn prepare_to_wait_exclusive(...);
unsafe extern "C" fn schedule();
unsafe extern "C" fn finish_wait(_wq_head: *mut wait_queue_head, _wq_entry: *mut wait_queue_entry);
unsafe extern "C" fn __mutex_init(_lock: *mut mutex, _name: *const c_types::c_char, _key: *mut lock_class_key);
unsafe extern "C" fn mutex_lock(_lock: *mut mutex);
unsafe extern "C" fn mutex_unlock(_lock: *mut mutex);
unsafe extern "C" fn add_device_randomness(_arg1: *const c_types::c_void, _arg2: c_types::c_uint);
unsafe extern "C" fn rng_is_initialized() -> bool_;
unsafe extern "C" fn wait_for_random_bytes() -> c_types::c_int;
unsafe extern "C" fn get_random_bytes(_buf: *mut c_types::c_void, _nbytes: c_types::c_int);
unsafe extern "C" fn alloc_chrdev_region(...);
unsafe extern "C" fn register_chrdev_region(...);
unsafe extern "C" fn unregister_chrdev_region(_arg1: dev_t, _arg2: c_types::c_uint);
unsafe extern "C" fn kernel_param_lock(_mod_: *mut module);
unsafe extern "C" fn kernel_param_unlock(_mod_: *mut module);
unsafe extern "C" fn slab_is_available() -> bool_;
unsafe extern "C" fn vm_insert_page(...);
unsafe extern "C" fn __free_pages(_page: *mut page, _order: c_types::c_uint);
unsafe extern "C" fn register_sysctl(...);
unsafe extern "C" fn unregister_sysctl_table(_table: *mut ctl_table_header);
unsafe extern "C" fn misc_register(_misc: *mut miscdevice) -> c_types::c_int;
unsafe extern "C" fn misc_deregister(_misc: *mut miscdevice);

Although most of our mock functions are trivial, there are a few functions that it is important to give a real implementation for. For example, we need the memory allocator to actually allocate memory. Normally this calls krealloc in rLinux but we need it to call KLEE’s memory allocator function realloc. So we replace this code (in rust/kernel/

    unsafe fn alloc(&self, layout: Layout) -> *mut u8 {
        // `krealloc()` is used instead of `kmalloc()` because the latter is
        // an inline function and cannot be bound to as a result.
        unsafe { bindings::krealloc(ptr::null(), layout.size(), bindings::GFP_KERNEL) as *mut u8 }

with this code

    unsafe fn alloc(&self, layout: Layout) -> *mut u8 {
        extern "C" {
            pub fn realloc(arg1: *const c_types::c_void, arg2: usize) -> *mut c_types::c_void;
        realloc(ptr::null(), layout.size()) as *mut u8

We also have a non-trivial mocking layer for printk although that has to be written in C (because the function type has varargs).7

After writing the mock layer, we can relink and run it in KLEE

make CC=wllvm -j16
llvm-link-11 samples/rust/rust_chrdev.bc samples/rust/.rust_chrdev.mod.o.bc rust/alloc.bc rust/kernel.bc rust/core.bc rust/rstubs.bc rust/.stubs.o.bc -o t.bc
klee --entry-point=init_module t.bc
klee --entry-point=cleanup_module t.bc

Create minimal test harness for FileOperations

As a very first attempt at creating a test, we will write a simple, conventional test for the rust_chrdev device driver and use KLEE to execute the bitcode. (At this stage, we will not do any symbolic execution: that is left to the next part of this series.)

One key abstraction used in Rust for Linux is the UserSlicePtrWriter that is used for writing some data into a memory buffer. The following function allocates a buffer and uses that to build a UserSlicePtrWriter.

fn make_writer(len: usize) -> UserSlicePtrWriter {
    let mut data: Vec<u8> = Vec::with_capacity(len);
    unsafe { UserSlicePtr::new(data.as_mut_ptr() as *mut c_types::c_void, len).writer() }

With this function, we can create a simple test function that exercises the read system call. Note that this test does not check that we see the expected behavior, it only checks that the code is memory safe (using KLEE’s built in checks for this). Exactly what properties a device driver is supposed to satisfy vary from one device to the next and this is just a generic initial test.

fn test_read<F: FileOperations>(file_state: &F, file: &File, len: usize) {
    pr_info!("Calling read");
    let mut data = make_writer(len);
    let offset: u64 = 0;
    match FileOperations::read(file_state, file, &mut data, offset) {
        Err(Error(rc)) => pr_info!("read error: {}", rc),
        Ok(sz) => pr_info!("read {} bytes", sz),
    pr_info!("Called read");

We also need one important change to the Rust for Linux infrastructure. For testing purposes, we need to be able to create a File object. These normally contain a pointer to an rLinux struct file but, since we are not linking rLinux into the codebase we don’t need to populate all the fields and we don’t have the rLinux code that would populate all the fields. For now, we are going to take the bold step of replacing the pointer to the file struct with… a null pointer. To do this, we extend rust/kernel/ with the function make_fake_file.

/// For testing purposes, we can make a file out of nothing
/// Note that this only works as long as the code being tested
/// does not use any of the other methods.
/// (This is a hack)
pub fn make_fake_file() -> File {
    let fptr: *const bindings::file = core::ptr::null();
    unsafe { File::from_ptr(fptr) }

With the help of these functions, we can write a simple test function

pub fn test_fileops() -> Result<()> {
    let ctx = ();
    let f: Box<RustFile> = RustFile::open(&ctx)?;

    let file = File::make_fake_file();
    test_read(&*f, &file, 128);


Which can be run using

make CC=wllvm -j16 samples/rust/rust_chrdev.o
llvm-link-11 samples/rust/rust_chrdev.bc samples/rust/.rust_chrdev.mod.o.bc rust/alloc.bc rust/kernel.bc rust/core.bc rust/rstubs.bc rust/.stubs.o.bc -o t.bc
klee --entry-point=test_fileops t.bc

producing this output

KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to ...
Calling read:0
KLEE: WARNING ONCE: Alignment of memory from call "malloc" is not modelled. Using alignment of 8.
6%s: %pA:0
Called read:0

KLEE: done: total instructions = 58
KLEE: done: completed paths = 1
KLEE: done: generated tests = 1

Which shows the output from running the test code. (The string “6%s: %pA:0” is a format string passed to printk because the mock printk implementation is not very good.)

Testing rust_semaphore

The above test is not very strong. In theory, it could fail on a null pointer dereference but, that is not very likely. In part, this is because it is just our first attempt. but it is also because the rust_chrdev driver doesn’t do very much so there is not a lot to test.

We can fix this by switching to rust_semaphore which supports which supports read, write and ioctl system calls.

If these were actual files, we might want to check that writing data and then reading it back returned the original data (say). Unfortunately, even an obvious property like that need not hold because devices are not required to behave exactly like files. In particular, the semaphore device ignores the data value: it just increments the semaphore by the amount of data being written.

In principle, every device can behave differently from any other so a single function will not be sufficient to test them. But some devices share some common properties so it should be possible to create stronger checkers that can be used across multiple device drivers. For now though, we must content ourselves with checking that the code does not fail KLEE’s standard safety checks.

fn make_reader(len: usize) -> UserSlicePtrReader {
    let mut data: Vec<u8> = Vec::with_capacity(len);
    unsafe { UserSlicePtr::new(data.as_mut_ptr() as *mut c_types::c_void, len).reader() }

fn test_read<F: FileOperations>(file_state: &F, file: &File, len: usize) {
    pr_info!("Calling read");
    let mut data = make_writer(len);
    let offset: u64 = 0;
    match FileOperations::read(file_state, file, &mut data, offset) {
        Err(Error(rc)) => pr_info!("read error: {}", rc),
        Ok(sz) => pr_info!("read {} bytes", sz),
    pr_info!("Called read");
pub fn test_fileops() -> Result<()> {
    // 1) Use RustSemaphore::init() to create module state sema
    // 2) Use FileState::open(sema) to get Box<FileState>
    // 3) Test the following operations
    //    - read // should block unless semaphore >= 1
    //    - write // increments semaphore by either 1 or write size (can't figure out which)
    //    - todo: ioctl too

    let registration = &RustSemaphore::init()?._dev;

    // get a FileState
    let file_state = *mk_file_state::<Arc<Semaphore>, FileState>(registration)?;
    pr_info!("Got filestate");

    let file = File::make_fake_file();

    // write some data *before* reading
    test_write(&file_state, &file, 128);

    // read some data (will block if we have not written first)
    test_read(&file_state, &file, 128);


fn mk_file_state<T: Sync, FS: FileOpener<T> + FileOperations>(reg: &Registration<T>) -> Result<FS::Wrapper> {
    let sema: &T = &reg.context;

Which can be compiled, linked and run by

make CC=wllvm -j16 samples/rust/rust_semaphore.o
llvm-link-11 samples/rust/rust_semaphore.bc samples/rust/.rust_chrdev.mod.o.bc rust/alloc.bc rust/kernel.bc rust/core.bc rust/.stubs.o.bc rust/rstubs.bc -o t.bc
klee --entry-point=test_fileops t.bc

Which produces this output

KLEE: output directory is "/usr/local/google/home/adreid/rust/rvt/downloads/linux/klee-out-46"
KLEE: Using STP solver backend
KLEE: WARNING ONCE: unsupported intrinsic llvm.sideeffect
KLEE: WARNING: undefined reference to ...
KLEE: WARNING ONCE: String not terminated by \0 passed to one of the klee_ functions
Rust semaphore sample (init)
KLEE: WARNING ONCE: Alignment of memory from call "malloc" is not modelled. Using alignment of 8.
Got filestate:0
Calling write:0
6%s: %pA:0
Called write:0
Calling read:0
6%s: %pA:0
Called read:0
Rust semaphore sample (exit)

KLEE: done: total instructions = 8110
KLEE: done: completed paths = 1
KLEE: done: generated tests = 1

This example is slightly more interesting and there are the beginnings of some reusable testing functions that can be used for multiple drivers.


Whew! If you made it this far, then you now know how to

  • Generate LLVM bitcode files for the Linux kernel by compiling it with WLLVM.
  • Generate LLVM bitcode files for the Rust for Linux code by adding a flag to KBUILD_RUSTCFLAGS in the Makefile.
  • Write a mock-Linux library to use instead of “rLinux” functions.
  • Link the bitcode files for a given Rust kernel module
  • Concretely execute the code in KLEE.
  • Write simple test harnesses to exercise the Rust for Linux device drivers8

But, the testing itself is still fairly limited and, in its current state, is not likely to catch bugs. The point of this whole series is not to show that it is useful to use KLEE with Rust code but to figure out whether it is even possible. These are just the beginning steps on what could be a very long journey.

In the final part of this series we will look at how to write verification harnesses and use KLEE to symbolically execute them.

  1. Recall that I made up the shortened name “rLinux” to refer to the “rest of Linux”: those parts of Linux that are not written in Rust. 

  2. If you want to update this to work with the current version of Rust for Linux, I have another branch that compiles but, since I was not able to use KLEE, it is untested and it has not been cleaned up to make it suitable for merging into the main branch. But it may be useful as a guide to what needs to be changed. 

  3. Note that the docker image has partial LLVM11 support. It is sufficient for the way that we will use KLEE with Linux but we do not recommend it for more general use because #[test] support is currently broken. 

  4. Warning: if you log out and restart in the middle of trying these commands, you will almost certainly forget to rerun the export PATH and export LLVM_COMPILER commands. 

  5. A useful tip if you want extra verbosity is to add “V=1” to the make command. 

  6. For my convenience, I am using the docker image that I use for all Rust verification work. This contains far more than you need because we will not be using all of the features of our work. This makes it slower to build and much larger than it has to be since the only part you will need is KLEE.

    If you want a smaller, leaner, faster process, it is not too hard to build KLEE yourself or, if you like docker, to use the KLEE build system to build your own LLVM-11 docker image. But see the special KLEE runtime build commands later in this section. 

  7. There are multiple ways that printk can be mocked. One way is to have it format the string and print that to stdout. For simplicity, we chose to have it print only the format string and to print by calling the KLEE function klee_print_expr instead. There’s no right or wrong answer here – although my abuse of klee_print_expr may be closer to wrong :-). 

  8. To let me focus on the issues around KLEE and testing, I have completely ignored any software engineering issues. In particular, I made random changes in files that need refactored, changes in a docker container that will be lost the moment that you close the container and other minor abominations. To make all this usable in practice, this all needs to be cleaned up but this post was already far, far too long 

Written on August 23, 2021.
The opinions expressed are my own views and not my employer's.