From SODA to scotch The evolution of a wireless baseband processor

Mark Woh, Yuan Lin, Sangwon Seo, Scott A. Mahlke, Trevor N. Mudge, Chaitali Chakrabarti, Richard Bruce, Danny Kershaw, Alastair Reid, Mladen Wilder, Krisztián Flautner
ARM Ltd and University of Michigan and Arizona State University
[pdf] [doi]

41st Annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO-41 2008)
Lake Como, Italy
November 2008

Abstract

With the multitude of existing and upcoming wireless standards, it is becoming increasingly difficult for hardware-only baseband processing solutions to adapt to the rapidly changing wireless communication landscape. Software Defined Radio (SDR) promises to deliver a cost effective and flexible solution by implementing a wide variety of wireless protocols in software. In previous work, a fully programmable multicore architecture, SODA, was proposed that was able to meet the real-time requirements of 3G wireless protocols. SODA consists of one ARM control processor and four wide single instruction multiple data (SIMD) processing elements. Each processing element consists of a scalar and a wide 512-bit 32-lane SIMD datapath. A commercial prototype based on the SODA architecture, Ardbeg (named after a brand of Scotch Whisky), has been developed. In this paper, we present the architectural evolution of going from a research design to a commercial prototype, including the goals, trade-offs, and final design choices.

Ardbeg's redesign process can be grouped into the following three major areas: optimizing the wide SIMD datapath, providing long instruction word (LIW) support for SIMD operations, and adding application-specific hardware accelerators. Because SODA was originally designed with 180nm technology, the wide SIMD datapath is re-optimized in Ardbeg for 90nm technology. This includes re-evaluating the most efficient SIMD width, designing a wider SIMD shuffle network, and implementing faster SIMD arithmetic units. Ardbeg also provides modest LIW support by allowing two SIMD operations to issue in the same cycle. This LIW execution supports SDR algorithms' most common parallel SIMD execution patterns with minimal hardware overhead. A viable commercial SDR solution must be competitive with existing ASIC solutions. Therefore, algorithm-specific hardware is added for performance bottleneck algorithms while still maintaining enough flexibility to support multiple wireless protocols. The combination of these architectural improvements allows Ardbeg to achieve 1.5-7x speedup over SODA across multiple wireless algorithms while consuming less power.

BibTeX

@inproceedings{DBLP:conf/micro/WohLSMMCBKRWF08 , abstract = {With the multitude of existing and upcoming wireless standards, it is becoming increasingly difficult for hardware-only baseband processing solutions to adapt to the rapidly changing wireless communication landscape. Software Defined Radio (SDR) promises to deliver a cost effective and flexible solution by implementing a wide variety of wireless protocols in software. In previous work, a fully programmable multicore architecture, SODA, was proposed that was able to meet the real-time requirements of 3G wireless protocols. SODA consists of one ARM control processor and four wide single instruction multiple data (SIMD) processing elements. Each processing element consists of a scalar and a wide 512-bit 32-lane SIMD datapath. A commercial prototype based on the SODA architecture, Ardbeg (named after a brand of Scotch Whisky), has been developed. In this paper, we present the architectural evolution of going from a research design to a commercial prototype, including the goals, trade-offs, and final design choices.

Ardbeg\textquotesingle s redesign process can be grouped into the following three major areas: optimizing the wide SIMD datapath, providing long instruction word (LIW) support for SIMD operations, and adding application-specific hardware accelerators. Because SODA was originally designed with 180nm technology, the wide SIMD datapath is re-optimized in Ardbeg for 90nm technology. This includes re-evaluating the most efficient SIMD width, designing a wider SIMD shuffle network, and implementing faster SIMD arithmetic units. Ardbeg also provides modest LIW support by allowing two SIMD operations to issue in the same cycle. This LIW execution supports SDR algorithms\textquotesingle most common parallel SIMD execution patterns with minimal hardware overhead. A viable commercial SDR solution must be competitive with existing ASIC solutions. Therefore, algorithm-specific hardware is added for performance bottleneck algorithms while still maintaining enough flexibility to support multiple wireless protocols. The combination of these architectural improvements allows Ardbeg to achieve 1.5-7x speedup over SODA across multiple wireless algorithms while consuming less power.} , acceptance = {19} , affiliation = {ARM Ltd and University of Michigan and Arizona State University} , ar_file = {MICRO_08} , ar_shortname = {MICRO 08} , author = {Mark Woh and Yuan Lin and Sangwon Seo and Scott A. Mahlke and Trevor N. Mudge and Chaitali Chakrabarti and Richard Bruce and Danny Kershaw and Alastair Reid and Mladen Wilder and Kriszti{\'a}n Flautner} , booktitle = {41st Annual {IEEE/ACM} International Symposium on Microarchitecture {(MICRO-41} 2008)} , day = {8-12} , doi = {10.1109/MICRO.2008.4771787} , file = {mwoh-micro08.pdf} , location = {Lake Como, Italy} , month = {November} , pages = {152--163} , publisher = {{IEEE} Computer Society} , title = {{F}rom {S{O}DA} to scotch: {T}he evolution of a wireless baseband processor} , year = {2008} }